Question 1 

The expectancy theory of motivation focuses on:


individual needs.


social exchange processes.


personal perceptions.



Question 2 

Frederick Taylor’s scientific management advanced the idea that:


unfulfilled needs acted as   motivation.


the relationship of management and   labor should be one of cooperation rather than conflict.


money was not a motivator.


self-interest and economic gain are   motivators for the owners of production and not the employees of owners

Question 3 

Persons who have a strong desire to influence others are high in the:


need for achievement.


need for affiliation.


need for safety.


need for power.

Question 4 

The expectancy theory prediction that people work to maximize their personal outcomes is consistent with:


Adams’ equity theory of social   exchange contributions/inputs.


Adam Smith’s ideas of working in   one’s own self interest.


Maslow’s hierarchy of need and the   progression hypothesis.


Herzberg’s emphasis on pay and   hygiene factors.

Question 5 

According to the Protestant ethic, a person should work hard because hard work and prosperity would lead to a place in heaven. The organizational scholar who advanced the Protestant Ethic notion was     .


John Calvin


Sigmund Freud


Adam Smith


Max Weber

Question 6 

Modern management practices such as employee management recognition programs, flexible benefit packages, and stock ownership plans emphasize:


internal needs.


intrinsic motivation.


external incentives.


the principle of the psychodynamic   theory

Question 7 

Adam Smith formulated the “invisible hand” and the free market to explain the motivation for individual behavior. The “invisible hand” refers to:


personal ethics in a free market   system.


unconscious motives.


internal needs.


unseen forces of a free market   system.

Question 8 

The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is used to measure:


a person’s tendency to not use   perception.


the achievement motive of an   individual.


the equity perceptions of an   individual.


cognitive themes of an individual.

Question 9 

Which of the following is considered a motivating factor in Herzberg’s two-factor theory?




Fringe benefits




Working conditions

Question 10 

McGregor believed that Theory X assumptions were appropriate for:


individuals located at the top of the   organization.


employees located at the lower level   of the organization.


individuals motivated by lower order   needs.


individuals motivated by higher order   needs.

Question 11 

The motivation theory that holds that employee motivation is determined by the belief that a valued outcome will result from effort is called the:


equity theory.


goal-setting theory.


expectancy theory.


two-factor theory.

Question 12 

The proposition that a person’s life was founded on the compulsion to work and the power of love is related to the:


Protestant ethic.


psychoanalytic approach.


process theories.


Calvinistic perspective on   motivation.

Question 13 

Maslow’s progression hypothesis states that:


as one level of need is satisfied, an   individual considers the next higher level of need as a source of motivation.


it is important to focus more on the   physical and economic needs of individuals than on their psychological and   interpersonal needs.


individuals will move up the   hierarchy of needs as well as down the hierarchy.


higher order needs are more important   than lower order needs.

Question 14 

The process of arousing and sustaining goal-directed behavior is called:









Question 15 

The sets of needs related to the animalistic avoidance of pain and human desire for psychological growth form the basis for:


Theory X & Theory Y.


Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.


McClelland’s need theory.


Herzberg’s two-factor theory.

Question 16 

In the context of schedules of reinforcement, if a random number of responses must be emitted before reinforcement occurs, it is a ________ schedule.


fixed interval


fixed ratio


variable interval


variable ratio

Question 17 

A form of operant conditioning that has been used successfully to shape organizational behavior is known as:


job enrichment.


organizational behavior development.


employee empowerment.


organizational behavior modification.

Question 18 

As part of a performance appraisal, companies develop employees and enhance careers through:


electronic performance monitoring.




coaching and counseling.


empathetic listening.

Question 19 

The process of modifying behavior so that a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus and elicits an unconditioned response is known as:


operant conditioning.


classical conditioning.





Question 20 

The strongest way for an employee to develop self-efficacy is to:


develop an internal locus of control.


develop a high degree of   self-monitoring.


use the extinction method.


succeed at a challenging task.

Question 21 

The behaviorist approach to learning assumes that observable behavior is a function of:


both the person and the environment.


external cues.


its consequences.


the interaction between the affect   and cognitive components of an individual.

Question 22 

The process of modifying behavior through the use of positive or negative consequences following specific behaviors is known as       .


classical conditioning


Pavlovian conditioning


Skinner’s Integrated Model of   conditioning


operant conditioning

Question 23 

All of the following are problems that contribute to the inaccuracy of performance appraisals except:









Question 24 

Central to Bandura’s social learning theory is the concept of ________.




classical conditioning


task-specific self-efficacy


continuous reinforcement

Question 25 

Management by objectives is a goal-setting and performance-planning program developed by ________.


Albert Bandura


B.F. Skinner


J. Willard Marriott


Peter Drucker

Question 26 

An important intermediate step between goal acceptance and goal accomplishment is:


behavior/reward contingencies.


goal clarity.


goal commitment.


goal specificity.

Question 27 

All of the following are generally considered to be good characteristics of work goals except:








moderately difficult.

Question 28 

An informational cue that indicates the degree to which a person behaves the same way in other situations is known as ________.









Question 29 

Intuitors, in terms of learning, prefer:


to search for practical applications.


interpersonal involvement.


specific, empirical data.


theoretical frameworks.

Question 30 

In the animal learning research by Pavlov, the sound of the bell was the:


conditioned response.


unconditioned response.


conditioned stimulus.


unconditioned stimulus.