The expectancy theory of motivation focuses on:
social exchange processes.
Frederick Taylor’s scientific management advanced the idea that:
unfulfilled needs acted as motivation.
the relationship of management and labor should be one of cooperation rather than conflict.
money was not a motivator.
self-interest and economic gain are motivators for the owners of production and not the employees of owners
Persons who have a strong desire to influence others are high in the:
need for achievement.
need for affiliation.
need for safety.
need for power.
The expectancy theory prediction that people work to maximize their personal outcomes is consistent with:
Adams’ equity theory of social exchange contributions/inputs.
Adam Smith’s ideas of working in one’s own self interest.
Maslow’s hierarchy of need and the progression hypothesis.
Herzberg’s emphasis on pay and hygiene factors.
According to the Protestant ethic, a person should work hard because hard work and prosperity would lead to a place in heaven. The organizational scholar who advanced the Protestant Ethic notion was .
Modern management practices such as employee management recognition programs, flexible benefit packages, and stock ownership plans emphasize:
the principle of the psychodynamic theory
Adam Smith formulated the “invisible hand” and the free market to explain the motivation for individual behavior. The “invisible hand” refers to:
personal ethics in a free market system.
unseen forces of a free market system.
The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is used to measure:
a person’s tendency to not use perception.
the achievement motive of an individual.
the equity perceptions of an individual.
cognitive themes of an individual.
Which of the following is considered a motivating factor in Herzberg’s two-factor theory?
McGregor believed that Theory X assumptions were appropriate for:
individuals located at the top of the organization.
employees located at the lower level of the organization.
individuals motivated by lower order needs.
individuals motivated by higher order needs.
The motivation theory that holds that employee motivation is determined by the belief that a valued outcome will result from effort is called the:
The proposition that a person’s life was founded on the compulsion to work and the power of love is related to the:
Calvinistic perspective on motivation.
Maslow’s progression hypothesis states that:
as one level of need is satisfied, an individual considers the next higher level of need as a source of motivation.
it is important to focus more on the physical and economic needs of individuals than on their psychological and interpersonal needs.
individuals will move up the hierarchy of needs as well as down the hierarchy.
higher order needs are more important than lower order needs.
The process of arousing and sustaining goal-directed behavior is called:
The sets of needs related to the animalistic avoidance of pain and human desire for psychological growth form the basis for:
Theory X & Theory Y.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
McClelland’s need theory.
Herzberg’s two-factor theory.
In the context of schedules of reinforcement, if a random number of responses must be emitted before reinforcement occurs, it is a ________ schedule.
A form of operant conditioning that has been used successfully to shape organizational behavior is known as:
organizational behavior development.
organizational behavior modification.
As part of a performance appraisal, companies develop employees and enhance careers through:
electronic performance monitoring.
coaching and counseling.
The process of modifying behavior so that a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus and elicits an unconditioned response is known as:
The strongest way for an employee to develop self-efficacy is to:
develop an internal locus of control.
develop a high degree of self-monitoring.
use the extinction method.
succeed at a challenging task.
The behaviorist approach to learning assumes that observable behavior is a function of:
both the person and the environment.
the interaction between the affect and cognitive components of an individual.
The process of modifying behavior through the use of positive or negative consequences following specific behaviors is known as .
Skinner’s Integrated Model of conditioning
All of the following are problems that contribute to the inaccuracy of performance appraisals except:
Central to Bandura’s social learning theory is the concept of ________.
Management by objectives is a goal-setting and performance-planning program developed by ________.
J. Willard Marriott
An important intermediate step between goal acceptance and goal accomplishment is:
All of the following are generally considered to be good characteristics of work goals except:
An informational cue that indicates the degree to which a person behaves the same way in other situations is known as ________.
Intuitors, in terms of learning, prefer:
to search for practical applications.
specific, empirical data.
In the animal learning research by Pavlov, the sound of the bell was the: