1. Ecology is the study of plants. animals. global climate change. relationships between organisms and their environment. the chemistry of living things2. Which of the following is not a renewable resource? groundwater trees soil oil wildlife3. Large ecological regions with characteristic types of natural vegetation and distinctive animals adapted to them are called communities ecosystems biomes ecospheres populations4. The first law of thermodynamics tells us that Doing work always creates heat. Altering matter is the best source of energy. Energy cannot be recycled. Energy is neither created nor destroyed. Energy cannot be converted.5. Nature reveals three basic principles that could help transition to sustainable societies. Which of the following is NOT one of those principles? reliance on solar energy biodiversity nutrient cycling survival of the fittest none of these answers6. Which of the following is an example of a density dependent population control parasites predators infectious diseases competitors with high niche overlap all of these answers7. One way that species evolve over time to reduce niche overlap is called competitive exclusion principle resource partitioning population distribution chemical warfare mimicry8. Which of the following would exhibit primary succession? a rock exposed by a retreating glacier an abandoned farm a clear-cut forest newly flooded land a recently burned forest9. Complex feeding patters for consumers in an ecosystem are called food webs food chains trophic levels pyramids of energy trophic chains10. What is the primary difference between renewable resources and nonrenewable resources? how easily they are discovered the amount of the resource the length of time it takes for the resource to be replenished or renewed how fast they are being used up the quality of the resource11. Emigration is the one-way movement of individuals into an established population the one-way movement of individuals out of an uninhabited area the one-way movement of individuals out of a population to another area the repeated movement into and out of an area the lack of immigration into an area12. Parasites harm but do not kill hosts immediately are usually larger then their hosts must be internal to their hosts may strengthen their hosts over a long period of time are usually microscopic (cannot be seen with naked eye)13. A species in an ecosystem that plays a central role in the health of that ecosystem, and whose removal may cause the collapse of the ecosystem, is called a(n) foundation species indicator species native species keystone species specialist species14. Which of the following would NOT be organic molecules? lipids nucleic acids hydrocarbons proteins water15. A negative feedback loop is illustrated by all of the following EXCEPT decelerating loss of heat as a pan of hot water is removed from the stove exponential population growth rate sweating to cool your body during and after vigorous exercise a thermostat maintaining a certain temperature in your house None of the above16. Exponential growth followed by a steady decrease in population growth until the population size levels off is typical of logistic growth environmental resistance exponential growth carrying capacity biotic potential17. Some individuals in a population have genetic traits that enhance their ability to survive and produce offspring, a process called natural selection adaptability genetic drift mutation theory of acquired traits18. Which of the following is the usual order of applying the scientific process to a problem? hypothesis-question-observation-experimentation-conclusion-analysis hypothesis-conclusion-question-observation-experimentation-analysis observation-hypothesis-conclusion-experimentation-analysis-question observation-question-hypothesis-experimentation-analysis-conclusion hypothesis-experimentation-observation-analysis-question-conclusion19. Large terrestrial regions with similar characteristics are ecosystems communities populations habitats biomes20. Each trophic level in a food chain or food web contains a certain amount of organic matter, called food energy biomass organisms decomposition21. Which of the following is said to occur when an interaction benefits one species but has little, if any, effect on the other interspecific competition predation parasitism mutualism commensalism22. The combination of all factors that limit population growth are known as? physical tolerance chemical tolerance physical & chemical tolerance environmental resistance population age structure23. Geographic isolation may result from which of the following? volcanic eruption river mountain range road All of the above24. Which of the following is NOT an example of an indicator species? trout in water with a specific temperature requirement birds that need a large forested area butterflies that use a specific plant as food frogs that take in water and air though their skin All are example of indicatory species25. Density dependence population controls means high rate of population increase. low rate of population increase. population growth declines as density increases population growth increases as density increases all of these answers26. Which is our best immediate energy option? Find and burn more forms of oil, natural gas, and coal. Cut out unnecessary energy waste by improving energy efficiency. Build more and better conventional nuclear power plants. Increase efforts to develop breeder nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. Discover a new form of energy.27. The ocean zone that covers the continental shelf is the bathyal zone coastal zone littoral zone benthic zone abyssal zone28. In lakes, the nutrient-rich water near the shore is part of the limnetic zone benthic zone littoral zone profundal zone abyssal zone29. A type of inland wetland that are depressions that have been carved out by ancient glaciers are known as floodplains swamps marshes prairie potholes arctic tundra30. Which of the following would be characteristic of the profundal zone? rooted plants low oxygen levels nourished by dead matter main photosynthetic layer turtles, frogs, crayfish, perch31. Oysters, clams, and lobsters would be part of which of the following phytoplankton zooplankton nekton benthos decomposers32. The world’s second fastest growing energy resource is hydropower wind power nuclear power solar power tidal energy33. The deepest part of the ocean is the abyssal zone euphotic zone estuary zone bathyal zone benthic zone34. Widely scattered clumps of trees, warm temperatures year-round, alternating dry and wet seasons, with herds of herbivores are the characteristics of which of the following? tall-grass prairie temperate grasslands temperate forest coastal forest savanna35. The severity of an earthquake is a measure of its seismic waves, and is called epicenter focus magnitude ridges valleys36. Clear-cutting does all of the following EXCEPT greatly increases water runoff increases loss of soil nutrients increases death of vegetation increases recreation increases pollution of streams37. All of the following are part of the saltwater or marine aquatic life zones, EXCEPT oceans estuaries inland wetlands coastal wetlands shorelines38. CITES is a(n) regulations controlling the introduction of exotic species treaty controlling the international trade in endangered species pact that supports critical ecosystems that support wildlife international organization dedicated to the preservation of endangered species policing agency for the protection of threatened species39. Which of the following is the biggest problem for US national parks today? huge number of park visitors habitat destruction invasion of alien species pollution all of these answers40. Because birds live in every climate and biome, and because they are easy to track and count, they serve as excellent keystone species foundation species indicator species aesthetic indicators habitat indicators41. Some toxic chemicals, such as those in DDT, can be stored in the fat tissue of animals. As these animals become food for larger and larger animals, the amount of toxin gets la
rger and larger. This process is called biotoxification ecotoxification biosystemics biomagnification bioremediation42. Renewable energy resources include all of the following, EXCEPT the sun the wind biomass natural gas water43. Which of the following would be characteristic of a eutrophic lake? nutrient overload from human activities nutrients levels between the extremes of too much and too little small supply of plant nutrients well-supplied with nutrients for producers excessive nutrients44. The key factors determining the types and numbers of organisms found in the various layers of both freshwater and marine systems include all of the following, EXCEPT parasitism availability of nutrients temperature dissolved oxygen levels availability of food45. Treeless, bitterly cold most of the year, winters are long and dark, low growing plants, permafrost are the characteristics of which of the following? tall-grass prairie tundra short-grass prairie temperate grassland savanna46. Organisms in this area must be able to avoid being swept away, crushed by waves, or being left high and dry at low tides, and must survive daily on seasonal salinity and temperature changes. estuaries coastal wetlands bathyal zone intertidal zone coral reefs47. With the Arctic warming twice as fast as the rest of the world, which of the following organisms is rapidly moving toward threatened status? sea lions Walrus polar bears Seals arctic fox48. A jellyfish would be considered a type of which of the following? Benthos Zooplankton Nekton phytoplankton ultraplankton49. On a fishing boat, someone catches a swordfish. As a biologist, you would consider this organism a type of phytoplankton zooplankton nekton benthos decomposer50. The weakness of electric cars is their noise level maintenance cost energy-storage system slow acceleration price51. The real prices of goods and services do NOT include the cost of raw materials the cost of manufacturing the environmental costs of resource use the cost of distribution the cost of advertising52. The highest rate at which a renewable resource can be used indefinitely without reducing its available supply is called conservation sustainable yield preservation recycling all of these answers53. Which of the following is said to occur when an interaction benefits one species but has little, if any, effect on the other? interspecific competition predation parasitism mutualism commensalism54. Which of the following statements is NOT an example of a physical change? Confetti is cut from pieces of paper. Water evaporates from a lake. Ice cubes are formed in the freezer. A plant converts carbon dioxide into carbohydrate. A tree is cut down in the forest.55. The organisms responsible for nitrogen fixation are plants animals fungi bacteria viruses56. A change in the genetic characteristics of a population from one generation to another is called emigration mutation natural selection evolution genetic drift57. All of the following are elements EXCEPT water oxygen nitrogen hydrogen carbon58. Life on earth depends on interaction of gravity, the cycling of matter, and cycling of energy one-way flow of energy one-way flow of matter the consumption of energy the consumption of matter59. Which of the following is a limitation of science? use of statistical tools for estimation human error nothing can be absolutely proven or disproven natural systems are very complex all of these60. Which of the following is an example of reuse? re-melting aluminum cans making compost out of kitchen scraps using plastic butter tubs to store leftovers using waste heat to warm a room making paper goods from previously used paper61. The hydrologic cycle is the movement of carbon hydrogen hydrocarbons carbohydrates water62. A species’ way of life in a community is its role habitat ecological niche geographical location range63. The typical percentage of loss of energy in transfers from one trophic level to the next is about 1% 5% 35% 60% 90%64. Isotopes are forms of an element that differ from one another by having different atomic numbers numbers of electrons numbers of protons mass numbers electrical charges65. An atom or group of atoms with one or more net positive or negative charges is a(n) base isotope ion acid none of these66. Which of the following dispersion patterns is most likely for a population in an environment were resources are scarce? clump random uniform wide diffuse67. The number of different species an ecosystem contains is its speciation species evenness species niche species richness habitat68. The distinct piece of DNA containing instructions for making proteins is the chromosome the nucleotide genes the cell membrane the hydrocarbon69. Pollution includes detergents dumped into streams volcanoes spewing toxic gases into the atmosphere CO2 releases from coal burning power plants fertilizer runoff from golf courses all of these70. Which of the following is NOT a method predators use to capture prey? pursuit ambush camouflage chemical warfare protective shells71. Scientists classify energy as either chemical or physical kinetic or mechanical potential or mechanical potential or kinetic chemical or kinetic72. Which of the following is a way that humans alter the water cycle? withdraw large quantities from streams, lakes, and aquifers increase runoff by clearing vegetation from the land increase flooding by draining and filling wetlands all of these answers none of these answers73. Biodiversity includes all of the following components EXCEPT functional diversity genetic diversity geomorphic diversity ecosystem diversity species diversity74. These are the parts of the earth’s air, water, and soil where organisms are found. habitat niche community ecosystem biosphere75. For natural selection to occur, an adaptive trait must be a physical trait must be a physiological trait must be a psychological trait must be a heritable trait must not be a heritable trait76. The two most important factors that determine an area’s climate are temperature and wind temperature and precipitation precipitation and light light and temperature wind and light76. The two most important factors that determine an area’s climate aretemperature and windtemperature and precipitationprecipitation and lightlight and temperaturewind and light77. Deep lakes with steep banks that have a small supply of plant nutrients areoligotrophic lakeseutrophic lakesculturally eutrophic lakeshypereutrophic lakesmesotrophic lakes78. The most effective water heateris an electric water tankis a gas water heateris an oil water heateris a tankless instant water heater fired by natural gasis a propane water heater79. One-third of the human food supply comes from plant that are pollinated bybatsbirdsinsectswindmammals80. The direct threat of climate change to marine habitat isincrease in carbon storage in oceansspread of tropical diseasesdecreased salinity of waterrising sea levelsUV radiation from ozone depletion81. The greatest marine biodiversity is locatedin the bottom region of the oceanin the surface region of the oceanin the coastal region of the oceanin the open oceanin coral reefs82. It is necessary to use energy to get energy. The difference between what you get and what you use to get it is calledgainlossgross energyprofitnet energy83. An old-growth forest would be defined asa commercial forest older than 30 yearsa forest undisturbed for at least 50 yearsa second-growth forest undisturbed for at least 100 yearsa re-planted forest that has had little disturbance for 100 yearsan uncut or regenerated primary forest undisturbed for several hundred years84. Which of the following is NOT one of the external geologic processes driven by energy from the sun?formation of mountainswind erosionweatheringwater erosionglacial erosion85. The dimly lit zone in which zooplankton and smaller fishes predominate, is theabyssal zoneeuphotic zoneestuary zonebathyal zonebenthic zone86. Forests cover about _____ % of the U.S. land area.101525305087. The continuous, low level extinction of species that has occurred since the beginning of life on earth is calledcontinual extinctionmass extinctionbackgroun
d extinctionlocal extinctionbiological extinction88. Which of the following countries has a significant whaling industry and whale meat market?United StatesAustraliaGreat BritainJapanChina89. The most important factor in determining which biome is found in a particular area issoil typetopographygeologyclimatelandforms90. The root cause of food insecurity iswarpolitical upheavalpovertycorruptionclimate change91. The location on the earth’s surface above where an earthquake begins is called itsapexfocusmagnitudeepicenterfault92. The world’s single largest cause of illness ismalariatyphoidmosquitoespoor healthunsafe drinking water93. The middle, partially melted zone of the interior of the earth is called thecrusttectonic platecoremantlemagma94. Which part of the earth’s crust makes up 71% of the crust?oceanic crustasthenospherelithospherecontinental crustgeosphere95. Which of the following describes a local area’s short-term temperature, precipitation, and humidity?climateweatherrainshadowthermal inversionswind patterns96. Approximately _____ of the commercial energy used in the U.S. is wasted25%58%65%78%84%97. In 2008 approximately 36% of the commercial honeybee colonies in the U.S. were lost due to?habitat lossclimate changehybridization with African honey beescolony collapse disorderpesticide use98. It takes approximately ____ barrels of water to produce one barrel of shale oil125102599. Prevailing winds are the result of what?temperaturedirection the sun strikes the earthrotation of the earth on its axisocean currentssun storms100. Which of the following refers to the ability of a living system to be restored after a period of moderate disturbance?stabilityinertiaconstancystabilityresilience77. Deep lakes with steep banks that have a small supply of plant nutrients are oligotrophic lakes eutrophic lakes culturally eutrophic lakes hypereutrophic lakes mesotrophic lakes78. The most effective water heater is an electric water tank is a gas water heater is an oil water heater is a tankless instant water heater fired by natural gas is a propane water heater79. One-third of the human food supply comes from plant that are pollinated by bats birds insects wind mammals80. The direct threat of climate change to marine habitat is increase in carbon storage in oceans spread of tropical diseases decreased salinity of water rising sea levels UV radiation from ozone depletion81. The greatest marine biodiversity is located in the bottom region of the ocean in the surface region of the ocean in the coastal region of the ocean in the open ocean in coral reefs82. It is necessary to use energy to get energy. The difference between what you get and what you use to get it is called gain loss gross energy profit net energy83. An old-growth forest would be defined as a commercial forest older than 30 years a forest undisturbed for at least 50 years a second-growth forest undisturbed for at least 100 years a re-planted forest that has had little disturbance for 100 years an uncut or regenerated primary forest undisturbed for several hundred years84. Which of the following is NOT one of the external geologic processes driven by energy from the sun? formation of mountains wind erosion weathering water erosion glacial erosion85. The dimly lit zone in which zooplankton and smaller fishes predominate, is the abyssal zone euphotic zone estuary zone bathyal zone benthic zone86. Forests cover about _____ % of the U.S. land area. 10 15 25 30 5087. The continuous, low level extinction of species that has occurred since the beginning of life on earth is called continual extinction mass extinction background extinction local extinction biological extinction88. Which of the following countries has a significant whaling industry and whale meat market? United States Australia Great Britain Japan China89. The most important factor in determining which biome is found in a particular area is soil type topography geology climate landforms90. The root cause of food insecurity is war political upheaval poverty corruption climate change91. The location on the earth’s surface above where an earthquake begins is called its apex focus magnitude epicenter fault92. The world’s single largest cause of illness is malaria typhoid mosquitoes poor health unsafe drinking water93. The middle, partially melted zone of the interior of the earth is called the crust tectonic plate core mantle magma94. Which part of the earth’s crust makes up 71% of the crust? oceanic crust asthenosphere lithosphere continental crust geosphere95. Which of the following describes a local area’s short-term temperature, precipitation, and humidity? climate weather rainshadow thermal inversions wind patterns96. Approximately _____ of the commercial energy used in the U.S. is wasted 25% 58% 65% 78% 84%97. In 2008 approximately 36% of the commercial honeybee colonies in the U.S. were lost due to? habitat loss climate change hybridization with African honey bees colony collapse disorder pesticide use98. It takes approximately ____ barrels of water to produce one barrel of shale oil 1 2 5 10 2599. Prevailing winds are the result of what? temperature direction the sun strikes the earth rotation of the earth on its axis ocean currents sun storms100. Which of the following refers to the ability of a living system to be restored after a period of moderate disturbance? stability inertia constancy stability resilience
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