PGA Tour
, Casey Martin was a disabled golfer who requested that he use a golf cart
to play golf.
Martin suffers from Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber Syndrome, a congenital and degenerative
circulatory disorder that, in Martin’s case, obstructs the flow of blood from his right leg back to
his heart. The consequences of this for Martin are that his right leg has atrophied, that he suffers
from severe pain in that leg, and that he consequently has great difficulty walking significant
distances. Moreover, walking for an extended time subjects Martin to a heightened risk of
hemorrhaging, blood clots, bone fractures, and, conceivably, having his right leg amputated.
Martin argued that the Americans with Disabilities Act requires that the PGA Tour “make
reasonable modifications” for disabled individuals, otherwise they would be in violation of the
The use of golf carts is prohibited during tournaments by the governing agency, PGA Tour.

Martin sued under the Americans with Disabilities Act. The Supreme Court ruled in his favor. In
philosophical terms, the Supreme Court held that the individual right denied caused greater harm
than the need for uniformity or equality in practice. Rights, in other words, are superior to
conventional arrangements of justice established by majorities.
Using the Supreme Court case, the understanding of justice from Sandel, including Aristotle and
his notion of Ethics as discussed in class, the modern understanding of what liberalism stands
for, and Rawls’s understanding of justice as fairness, and any number of authors we have read on
equality and justice, state which side has the better argument.
You are encouraged to consult the Casey Martin case,
which is posted on Canvas, but it is not
required. If relying upon Sandel, the citation goes to Sandel. Should you cite the posted
case, the citation will be to the page in Word and not to the actual page numbers of the
case. So cite the case like this: (Martin, 5). In the text, the first reference goes like this: In
PGA Tour
blah blah blah
…But the second goes like this: In
Casey Martin, blah blah

Do not write an essay on your feelings about this subject without reference to any thinkers
discussed in class or in Sandel’s book. Do not rely exclusively or extensively on authors not
found in Sandel. Do not attempt to write an answer to a question I did not ask. It is acceptable to
use outside research, but not at the expense of Sandel’s book.