1. Discuss the behavioral genetics of individual differences, being sure to focus on common misunderstandings about heritability estimates.2 Two brain structures have been most frequently linked to human emotion. Which are they? Describe research that has implicated each in human emotion.3. Explain color constancy. What important points does it make about the mechanisms of color vision? Describe a theory of color vision that can explain color constancy, focusing on the evidence that led to the theory.4. Compare set-point and positive-incentive theories of hunger and eating. Compare their ability to predict two major research findings.5.Describe and discuss sexual dimorphisms of the mammalian brain. How do they develop? Include cyclic gonadotropin release, the sexually dimorphic nucleus, and the aromatization hypothesis in your answer.6.What distinguishes biopsychology from the other subdisciplines of neuroscience?A.its focus on the study of behavior B.its focus on animal subjects C.its focus on psychiatric disorders D.its focus on psychoactive drugs7.Structure of the nervous system is to function of the nervous system asA.biopsychology is to psychology. B.neuroanatomy is to neurophysiology. C.neuropathology is to clinical psychology. D.neuroscience is to biopsychology8.In the study of heritability estimates, increasing the genetic diversity of the subjects without introducing other changes would likelyA.decrease the heritability estimate. B.confound the experiment. C.increase the accuracy of the heritability estimate. D.increase the heritability estimate.9.The sensitive period for the development of a particular trait is the periodA.of chronic pain. B.of sexual receptivity. C.of fertility. D.during which a particular experience must occur to have a major effect on the development of the trait.Deterioration of the pathway from the substantia nigra to the striatum is often found in cases ofA.Korsakoff’s syndrome. B.Parkinson’s disease. C.autism. D.Alzheimer’s disease.Which of the following are multipolar cortical neurons with long axons, apical dendrites, and triangular cell bodies?A.stellate cells B.chandelier cells C.pyramidal cells D.granule cells Many self-stimulation sitesA.contain serotonergic neurons. B.are part of the mesotelencephalic dopamine system. C.are adrenergic. D.are glutaminergicWhich of the following drugs produces Buerger’s disease?A.tobacco B.morphine C.marijuana D.cocaineDarwin believed thatA.expressions of emotion evolve from behaviors that indicate what an animal is likely to do next. B.expressions of emotion evolve in ways that enhance their communicative function and that their original function may be lost. C.opposite messages are often signaled by opposite movements and postures. D.all of the aboveThe pattern of behavior that is observed in monkeys after their anterior temporal lobes have been removed is calledA.sham rage. B.the Kluver-Bucy syndrome. C.hippocampal rage. D.septal rage.Many studies have found structural and functional brain pathology in patients suffering from affective disorders. Although there is little consensus about the exact location of the brain pathology, it is most commonly observed in three structures. These structures include theA.amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex. B.hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex. C.amygdala and hippocampus. D.all of the aboveClinical depression and anxiety are comorbid disorders, which means that theyA.both increase the likelihood of suicide. B.both increase susceptibility to terminal illness. C.have the same effect on neurochemicals. D.tend to occur together in the same individuals.A.T. is a woman with selective damage to her dorsal visual stream. She hasA.little difficulty making accurate movements under visual control. B.substantial difficulty making accurate movements under visual control. C.substantial difficulty consciously recognizing objects. D.lost all ability to respond to moving images.In general, information in the primary visual cortex is thought to flow from __________ to __________ to __________.A.lower layer IV; simple cells; complex cells B.lower layer IV; complex cells; simple cells C.simple cells; lower layer IV; complex cells D.simple cells; complex cells; lower layer IV In the classic transection experiments of Lawrence and Kuypers, monkeys with all their dorsolateral motor pathways transected sat with their arms hanging limply by their sides. However, these same monkeys had no difficultyA.picking up pieces of food and then releasing them. B.using their arms for standing, walking, and climbing. C.reaching for moving objects. D.moving their fingers independently.According to current theory, the sensorimotor systemA.is largely ballistic. B.is largely, if not entirely, ipsilateral. C.comprises a hierarchy of central sensorimotor programs. D.all of the aboveThe three phases of energy metabolism are, in sequence,A.eat, fast, and absorb. B.absorptive, cephalic, and fasting. C.cephalic, absorptive, and fasting. D.fasting, absorptive, and cephalic.Set-point theories of hunger and eating are inconsistent withA.eating-related evolutionary pressures as we understand them. B.the major effects on eating of taste, learning, and social factors. C.the failure of researchers to confirm that energy deficits are the usual stimuli for eating. D.all of the aboveWhich of the following statements is true?A.Men and women have fundamentally different anterior pituitaries. B.Men and women have fundamentally different posterior pituitaries. C.A male pituitary transplanted into a female displays a cyclic pattern of hormone release. D.A female pituitary transplanted into a male displays a cyclic pattern of hormone release. The external reproductive organs of males and females developA.from different tissue. B.from the same bipotential tissue. C.under environmental control. D.under direct genetic control.