I need some one to reply with 150 word count , and citation to the following response below:


The basic difference between a theory and model is one provides guidance on the micro level, while the other focuses on the macro level. A theory provides the guidance on a micro level; it tells which attitudes to change for making the behavior change, what activities to do with the target audience and what educational methods to use. (Sharma and Romas, 2012). A model operates on a macro level, it addresses what behaviors to target, what resources to use, and how to mobilize the community.

One model that has been used for health education and promotion is the pen-3 model. This type of model would be well suited to target promotion of the “clean water” initiative in a third world country such as Africa. The model targets health promotion on not just an individual level, but family and community also. The first dimension of PEN-3 targets the person, extended family and the neighborhood. This dimension would be effective in the “clean water” initiative within a third world country such as Africa by targeting families in the neighborhoods in need of clean water.  According to clean water initiative.org, a model such as PEN-3 may already be in effect. The site states that they work with local villages in Northern Uganda to build or rehabilitate a water facility like a well and then help the village set up a governing committee. After this start, the model can be complete by addressing perceptions natives may have due their beliefs or values. For example, would the residents have an issue accepting outside help due to their values? That issue along with combatting enablers would have to be addressed and nurtures to would be encouraged to continue the initiative’s success. PEN-3 is rounded out with cultural empowerment, which addresses positive and negative perceptions. It seems that the PEN-3 model is one that is already close to one that is being used by the clean water initiative. If PEN-3 is used, with follow up using the last two dimensions, I believe the program will continue to help those in desperate need of clean water. (348)


Sharma, M., & Romas, J. A. (2012). Theoretical Foundations of Health Education and Health Promotion. Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett Learning.

Village Partnerships . (n.d.). Retrieved from Cleanwaterinitiative.org.