Discuss some of the ethical issues relating to genetic testing.


please answer the question also reply two the two student below 


Charmaine Dela Paz

Dec 5, 2022 at 12:50 PM

Genetic testing is a type of medical test that identifies changes in genes, chromosomes, or proteins. The results of a genetic test can confirm or rule out a suspected genetic disorder, or they can help figure out how likely a person is to get or pass on a genetic disorder.(What Is Genetic Testing?: MedlinePlus Genetics, 2021) 

Here are some ethical issues relating to genetic testing.

Autonomy – Respect for autonomy refers to the right of individuals to make an educated and autonomous decision about whether or not they desire to undergo genetic testing. This right arises in the context of genetic testing and screening. A further implication of the principle of autonomy is that individuals should have the right to exercise control over the manner in which their genetic material is used once it has been submitted for examination.

Confidentiality – Confidentiality as a principle implies that some body of information is sensitive, and access to it must be controlled. The state or condition of nondisclosure or limited disclosure may be protected by moral, social, or legal principles. For example, rules of confidentiality may prohibit a physician from disclosing some information to an insurance company or an employer. Results are confidential. Without informed permission from the screened subject, test results should not be released. Patients should be advised of other parties’ possible uses of genetic information and alternate means to access it where appropriate.

Privacy – One broad definition of privacy gets to the heart of what it means: privacy is “a state or condition in which access to a person is limited.” People have privacy if other people can’t get to them or don’t. They have privacy if they are left alone and no one else comes in without their permission. When a person gets a genetic test, they have the right to make an independent, well-informed decision about whether and how many other people can know about their genome (e.g., insurers, employers, educational institutions, spouses and other family members, researchers, and social agencies)

Equity – Several procedures, rules, and procedures around genetic testing raise questions of justice, fairness, and equality. Nowadays, people usually make a distinction between “formal justice” and “substantive justice.” Adhering to the rules of formal justice necessitates applying the same standards to all situations of a similar kind. Similarities and disparities are determined by substantive or material justice standards.

Genetic disorders or predispositions may prohibit access to social goods like work or health insurance. Most judicial systems require hiring based on skill and safety. Accordingly, denying employment to a qualified person with a genetic disease is unfair. Health insurance and job problems sometimes overlap. “Actuarial fairness” in medical underwriting is grouping people with comparable risks so insurers can properly forecast expenses and set fair and adequate premium rates. Actuarial fairness may seem intuitively attractive, but detractors say it does not convey moral or social justice.(Medicine (US) Committee on Assessing Genetic Risks et al., 1994)



What is genetic testing?: MedlinePlus Genetics. (2021, July 28). What Is Genetic Testing?: MedlinePlus Genetics. Retrieved December 5, 2022, from https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/understanding/testing/genetictesting/

Medicine (US) Committee on Assessing Genetic Risks, I. O., Andrews, L. B., Fullarton, J. E., Holtzman, N. A., & Motulsky, A. G. (1994, January 1). Social, Legal, and Ethical Implications of Genetic Testing – Assessing Genetic Risks – NCBI Bookshelf. Social, Legal, and Ethical Implications of Genetic Testing – Assessing Genetic Risks – NCBI Bookshelf. Retrieved December 5, 2022, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK236044/



Amy Hernandez

Dec 5, 2022 at 2:45 PM


Genetics is the study of heredity and explores the biological influences of parents on their offsprings (Fremgen, 2020). Both genetic testing and counseling has offered parents an opportunity to receive some sort of guidance when making rational decisions regarding their family planning (Fremgen, 2020). Most parents want to reduce the likelihood of their children being born with any sort of impairment, which is why they resort to genetic testing. In fact, 3 and 5 percent of all newborns have a hereditary or congenital disorder (Fremgen, 2020). ¼ of all hospitalizations and deaths among babies are a result of these disorders (Fremgen, 2020). Now, with the clear  benefits of genetic testing, there are a few ethical issues  and questions that rise. For instance, do parents have the right to be informed of the results of a genetic test? (Fremgen, 2020). This question stems from the notion that physicians are responsible for informing the patient of the results and prioritizing the patients, wants, needs etc. This is specially challenging for phsycians who do not support baportion and fear that after opbtaining positive results, the parents will seek an abortion (Fremgen, 2020). Furthermore, there are questions about what other types of information genetic testing will uncover, the pleasantness of these and  the fact that if parents ask, they will be given all the information. Some examples would be discovering that they have a risk for Alzheimer’s disease or that your “father” isn’t really biologically related to you. According to Fremgen (2020), 1 to 10 percent of all people may have misidentified paternity. Furthermore, if a baby is discovered to have some sort of impairment before being born and the mom knows he/she will have a difficult life growing up, is it right for the child to be born if it will suffer so much? (Fremgen, 2020). Should public funds be used to pay for genetic testing? and do a small number of people with potential for a disease or genetic condition justify the expense of testing all babies ? are other ethical dilemmas noted (Fremgen, 2020). If parents know they have a great possibility of passing on a disease to their children, it would be reasonable for them to want some sort of test to explore the percentage of it actually being passed down. The question comes down to whether the expenses would be justified by their preventative measures. Likewise, should the cost be covered, if the test was conducted under similar reasonable means by the state and not the individual people being tested? 



Fremgen, F. B. (2020). Medical Law and Ethics. Hoboken, NJ: Pearson.