Population Genetics and Human Evolution
Complete the following discussions:
The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium states that allele frequencies remain constant across generations unless certain influences are introduced, such as nonrandom matings or mutations. Describe the Hardy-Weinberg principle. Are there influences that deviate from the principle? If so, what are they? If no, why?
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) profiling is a tool used in forensic investigation and paternity testing. This technique is often used by forensic scientists to identify individuals on the basis of their DNA profiles. How is DNA profiling performed? What are some of the novel uses of DNA profiling, other than those described in your textbook?
Sickle-cell disease is an example of balanced polymorphism as carriers of this disease are protected against malaria. Describe an example of balanced polymorphism, other than sickle-cell disease, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, phenylketonuria (PKU), prior protein mutation, cystic fibrosis (CF), and Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS).
Genetic ancestry testing is becoming popular as more and more people are trying to trace their ancestry. Two different types of tests are generally offered, mitochondrial DNA, which traces maternal lineages, and Y chromosome testing, which traces paternal lineages. Does genetic ancestry testing provide a complete picture of a person’s heritage? If so, how? If not, why not?