Question Description

Respond to the two discussion board posts below in a minimum of 50 words

Discussion Requirements

Participating in discussion does not necessarily mean posting dozens of times or showing everyone what you know or that you have studied all night. Good discussion participation involves people trying to build on comments from others, and on showing appreciation for others’ contributions. Discussion also involves inviting others to say more about what they are thinking. Below are some specific examples of strong participation:

  • Ask a question or make a comment showing that you are interested in another person’s post and encouraging him or her to elaborate.
  • Post a resource (a reading, web link, video, quote, etc.) not covered in the syllabus but adding new information or valuable perspectives to the learning.
  • Make a comment underscoring the link between two people’s posts and make this link explicit in your comment.
  • Make a comment indicating that you found another person’s ideas interesting or useful. Be specific as to why this was the case.
  • Contribute something that builds on what someone else has posted. Be explicit about the way you are building on the other person’s thoughts.

Discussion Board Post 1

All existing forms of life contain a particular network of organelles within the cell. Each one requires its own special function. The job of the lysosome is to wipe out damaged organelles that no longer perform their duties. If the lysosome, a sac-like structure, fails to properly recycle the old organelle to other parts of the cell, it will eventually fill and die from developing too many useless lysosomes (Ireland, 2013). This malfunction is known as lysosomal storage disease and Gaucher Disease is one of the most common of its kind.

Gaucher Disease is autosomal recessively inherited from both parents, causing the glucocerebrosidase gene to mutate (Stone & Master, 2017). The signs and symptoms of Gaucher Disease vary depending on the type the patient had inherited. There are five known form of the disease: type 1, type 2, type 3, perinatal lethal and cardiovascular. All the types cause the lysosome sac to fill with the protein lipids and hydrolytic enzymes within the cell; whereas symptoms could cause the liver to expand twice its size, and the spleen upwards to fifteen times its size (Stone & Master, 2017). Additional signs and symptoms of the disease include abdominal distention, weak and brittle bones, fatigue and bruising caused by a decline in red blood cells. Some types of Gaucher Disease may also cause nose epistaxis, eye agitation and seizures. Depending on the severity of the type, some patients may die as young as infancy (Stone & Master, 2017).
The lysosome is the organelle affected by Gaucher Disease. There are currently around forty known lysosome storage disorders today, all of which being progressive over time. The lysosome gets disrupted when it fails to digest lipids and macromolecules, causing it to load up with glucocerebroside (Stone & Master, 2017). Over time, the lysosome will fill with a toxic accumulation and eventually kill the cell. The exact cause of Gaucher Disease is unknown.
Organelles are important because they are needed for protein and energy. Without them, the lethal abundance of toxins in the localized lysosome will case the cell(s) to die – causing Gaucher Disease. Some say the disease appears to look like “crumpled paper;” whereas to me, it appears to look like raisins or water balloons filled with a liquid (Stone & Master, 2017).

Enzyme replacement therapy and substrate reduction therapy are the only two options available to treat Gaucher Disease. Though it doesn’t replace the injured cell or lysosome; enzyme replacement therapy can help relieve some of the signs and symptoms through an IV. On the downside, enzyme replacement therapy can build antibodies to the therapy, causing it to no longer be a viable symptom relief for the patient (Stone & Master, 2017). Substrate reduction therapy tends to have better results and is available in two pill forms. Substrate reduction therapy is taken orally to help lower the toxicity caused by the accumulation of diminished lysosomes (Stone & Master, 2017).

Localized cancers are diagnosed when certain parts of the body are affected, such as the breast or prostate. This is caused by the cells failing to communicate. When proteins become mutated in any way, it inhibits communication along the network passage. Once these pathways start becoming lost, a tumor is formed and commandeers all communication signals (“The Cell,” 2013). These signals are part of an intricate network that directs all cell movement. When the cell neglects to respond to signals, it divides itself uncontrollably. The cells communicate with each other through chemical signals along paths of specialized networks (“The Cell,” 2013).

Viva Sarah Press, 2015 published an article discussing the potential of cancer blockers in the form of cells from various cancers. Sheba Medical Center’s Dr. Michal Besser has theorized that putting these cells into the body would speed up molecule communication, preventing the cells from getting lost in communication and dividing (Viva Sarah Press, 2015). According to the article, 85% of cancers show a break in the communication passageway known as the MAPK/ERK cascade. The protein in the cell causes it to send its message multiple times in the form of spam mail, by having the protein slip in and out of the cell (Viva Sarah Press, 2015).

As unique as a spam mail block would be, many of us cannot afford such a product. I would hypothesize that a diet could the communication process. Cutting out sugars and keeping a good protein intake may help prevent from these communication errors.
Cell communication in the human body is just as important in everyday life. All of us have a job that requires communication in some form. If we cannot communicate, everything will be disrupted. We may be able to get back on track, or it can all just keep failing in front of us. The same is to be said about cells. They all know their role, but the moment another cell fails to communicate is when everything gets disrupted. The more disruption, the more the cell divides itself, causing a tumor.

Discusssion Board Post 2

Hello everyone!

For this unit’s discussion, I decided to research Zellweger syndrome. This is one of a group of four diseases that are related and are referred to as peroxisome biogenesis disorders. It is caused by mutations in any one of at least 12 genes. The symptoms normally occur anywhere between the first few hours to the first few days of a newborn (World, 2014). Zellweger results in poor muscle tone, poor feeding, seizures, hearing loss, vison loss, skeletal abnormities and digestion problems. These can lead to gastrointestinal bleeding and liver failure. There are life threatening problems in the organs and tissues that make the newborn not survive past one year old. This really touches me, because I cannot imagine having to lose a child after only having them alive for one year. This must be traumatizing news for parents to hear, only hours after their baby is born. The organelle that is affected are peroxisomes, organelles found in almost all body cells. Peroxisomes are small membrane enclosed organelles. The normal function of this organelle is to take action breaking down the very long chain fatty acids through beta-oxidation (Cooper, 1970). It is also part of energy metabolism, and metabolic reactions. Peroxisomes absorb nutrients that the cell has acquired, and contain at least 50 different enzymes. They were originally defined as organelles that carry out oxidation reactions, leading to the production of hydrogen peroxide. This organelle is extremely important in the cell, because it helps control digestion and the metabolism. Without this cell, you would have problems and not be able to digest fatty acids and alcohol properly. Also, with it being able to absorb nutrients, it is important so that your body gets all the right nutrients that each cell needs. I have left a link down below that shows the different peroxisomes under a microscope. It shows the lipid deposits, with not much room, and the cells close together. There are sadly no cures for Zellweger syndrome; and treatment mainly includes coping and sympathetic therapy for the parents. This makes me very upset, because it does not even give the baby a fighting chance. At this point in time, the parents must accept that their baby will lose their life.

Depression is also a very serious disorder that affects many people. Neurons send different signals from the brain to the body, and we classify this as depression. There are many forms of depression, with the main one being mood swings and changes in mood. A chemical imbalance disrupts the cellular communication between the brain and body. Basically, the body is happy, and the mind is creating sadness and frustration, which makes the body go through mood swings and causes depression. A person’s genes can make individuals more vulnerable to mood swings and depression. I would correct the communication error between the brain and body by medication and therapy. I think that antidepressant medication can help with the chemical imbalances and correct the depressive state of the person. Therapy might also help with the communication errors, because talking about problems might change the brains way of thinking. Overall, it is very important to have cell communication in the human body, because your brain tells your body what to do. Nerve cell communication needs to be working properly so that your body performs the tasks that your brain wants to happen. Your brain tells your body when to talk, walk, run, and do everyday tasks. Without the communication between the brain and body, it could lead to harmful thoughts, and harmful actions.

-Shannon Harris

Respond to the two discussion board posts below in a minimum of 50 wordsDiscussion RequirementsParticipating in discussion does not necessarily mean posting dozens of times or showing everyone what you know or that you have studied all night. Good discussion participation involves people trying to build on comments from others, and on showing appreciation for others’ contributions. Discussion also involves inviting others to say more about what they are thinking. Below are some specific examples of strong participation:Ask a question or make a comment showing that you are interested in another person’s post and encouraging him or her to elaborate.Post a resource (a reading, web link, video, quote, etc.) not covered in the syllabus but adding new information or valuable perspectives to the learning.Make a comment underscoring the link between two people’s posts and make this link explicit in your comment.Make a comment indicating that you found another person’s ideas interesting or useful. Be specific as to why this was the case.Contribute something that builds on what someone else has posted. Be explicit about the way you are building on the other person’s thoughts.Discussion Board Post 1All existing forms of life contain a particular network of organelles within the cell. Each one requires its own special function. The job of the lysosome is to wipe out damaged organelles that no longer perform their duties. If the lysosome, a sac-like structure, fails to properly recycle the old organelle to other parts of the cell, it will eventually fill and die from developing too many useless lysosomes (Ireland, 2013). This malfunction is known as lysosomal storage disease and Gaucher Disease is one of the most common of its kind.Gaucher Disease is autosomal recessively inherited from both parents, causing the glucocerebrosidase gene to mutate (Stone & Master, 2017). The signs and symptoms of Gaucher Disease vary depending on the type the patient had inherited. There are five known form of the disease: type 1, type 2, type 3, perinatal lethal and cardiovascular. All the types cause the lysosome sac to fill with the protein lipids and hydrolytic enzymes within the cell; whereas symptoms could cause the liver to expand twice its size, and the spleen upwards to fifteen times its size (Stone & Master, 2017). Additional signs and symptoms of the disease include abdominal distention, weak and brittle bones, fatigue and bruising caused by a decline in red blood cells. Some types of Gaucher Disease may also cause nose epistaxis, eye agitation and seizures. Depending on the severity of the type, some patients may die as young as infancy (Stone & Master, 2017). The lysosome is the organelle affected by Gaucher Disease. There are currently around forty known lysosome storage disorders today, all of which being progressive over time. The lysosome gets disrupted when it fails to digest lipids and macromolecules, causing it to load up with glucocerebroside (Stone & Master, 2017). Over time, the lysosome will fill with a toxic accumulation and eventually kill the cell. The exact cause of Gaucher Disease is unknown. Organelles are important because they are needed for protein and energy. Without them, the lethal abundance of toxins in the localized lysosome will case the cell(s) to die – causing Gaucher Disease. Some say the disease appears to look like “crumpled paper;” whereas to me, it appears to look like raisins or water balloons filled with a liquid (Stone & Master, 2017).Enzyme replacement therapy and substrate reduction therapy are the only two options available to treat Gaucher Disease. Though it doesn’t replace the injured cell or lysosome; enzyme replacement therapy can help relieve some of the signs and symptoms through an IV. On the downside, enzyme replacement therapy can build antibodies to the therapy, causing it to no longer be a viable symptom relief for the patient (Stone & Master, 2017). Substrate reduction therapy tends to have better results and is available in two pill forms. Substrate reduction therapy is taken orally to help lower the toxicity caused by the accumulation of diminished lysosomes (Stone & Master, 2017).Localized cancers are diagnosed when certain parts of the body are affected, such as the breast or prostate. This is caused by the cells failing to communicate. When proteins become mutated in any way, it inhibits communication along the network passage. Once these pathways start becoming lost, a tumor is formed and commandeers all communication signals (“The Cell,” 2013). These signals are part of an intricate network that directs all cell movement. When the cell neglects to respond to signals, it divides itself uncontrollably. The cells communicate with each other through chemical signals along paths of specialized networks (“The Cell,” 2013).Viva Sarah Press, 2015 published an article discussing the potential of cancer blockers in the form of cells from various cancers. Sheba Medical Center’s Dr. Michal Besser has theorized that putting these cells into the body would speed up molecule communication, preventing the cells from getting lost in communication and dividing (Viva Sarah Press, 2015). According to the article, 85% of cancers show a break in the communication passageway known as the MAPK/ERK cascade. The protein in the cell causes it to send its message multiple times in the form of spam mail, by having the protein slip in and out of the cell (Viva Sarah Press, 2015).As unique as a spam mail block would be, many of us cannot afford such a product. I would hypothesize that a diet could the communication process. Cutting out sugars and keeping a good protein intake may help prevent from these communication errors. Cell communication in the human body is just as important in everyday life. All of us have a job that requires communication in some form. If we cannot communicate, everything will be disrupted. We may be able to get back on track, or it can all just keep failing in front of us. The same is to be said about cells. They all know their role, but the moment another cell fails to communicate is when everything gets disrupted. The more disruption, the more the cell divides itself, causing a tumor.Discusssion Board Post 2Hello everyone! For this unit’s discussion, I decided to research Zellweger syndrome. This is one of a group of four diseases that are related and are referred to as peroxisome biogenesis disorders. It is caused by mutations in any one of at least 12 genes. The symptoms normally occur anywhere between the first few hours to the first few days of a newborn (World, 2014). Zellweger results in poor muscle tone, poor feeding, seizures, hearing loss, vison loss, skeletal abnormities and digestion problems. These can lead to gastrointestinal bleeding and liver failure. There are life threatening problems in the organs and tissues that make the newborn not survive past one year old. This really touches me, because I cannot imagine having to lose a child after only having them alive for one year. This must be traumatizing news for parents to hear, only hours after their baby is born. The organelle that is affected are peroxisomes, organelles found in almost all body cells. Peroxisomes are small membrane enclosed organelles. The normal function of this organelle is to take action breaking down the very long chain fatty acids through beta-oxidation (Cooper, 1970). It is also part of energy metabolism, and metabolic reactions. Peroxisomes absorb nutrients that the cell has acquired, and contain at least 50 different enzymes. They were originally defined as organelles that carry out oxidation reactions, leading to the production of hydrogen peroxide. This organelle is extremely important in the cell, because it helps control digestion and the metabolism. Without this cell, you would have problems and not be able to digest fatty acids and alcohol properly. Also, with it being able to absorb nutrients, it is important so that your body gets all the right nutrients that each cell needs. I have left a link down below that shows the different peroxisomes under a microscope. It shows the lipid deposits, with not much room, and the cells close together. There are sadly no cures for Zellweger syndrome; and treatment mainly includes coping and sympathetic therapy for the parents. This makes me very upset, because it does not even give the baby a fighting chance. At this point in time, the parents must accept that their baby will lose their life. Depression is also a very serious disorder that affects many people. Neurons send different signals from the brain to the body, and we classify this as depression. There are many forms of depression, with the main one being mood swings and changes in mood. A chemical imbalance disrupts the cellular communication between the brain and body. Basically, the body is happy, and the mind is creating sadness and frustration, which makes the body go through mood swings and causes depression. A person’s genes can make individuals more vulnerable to mood swings and depression. I would correct the communication error between the brain and body by medication and therapy. I think that antidepressant medication can help with the chemical imbalances and correct the depressive state of the person. Therapy might also help with the communication errors, because talking about problems might change the brains way of thinking. Overall, it is very important to have cell communication in the human body, because your brain tells your body what to do. Nerve cell communication needs to be working properly so that your body performs the tasks that your brain wants to happen. Your brain tells your body when to talk, walk, run, and do everyday tasks. Without the communication between the brain and body, it could lead to harmful thoughts, and harmful actions.-Shannon Harris