A 42-year-old white male presented with sudden onset of suprapubic and pelvic discomfort associated with gross hematuria. His vitals were stable on admission. A cystogram demonstrated a bladder of normal size and contour with no intravesical filling defect. Computed tomography (CT) revealed thickened bladder wall with possible infiltrating hematoma and obstruction of the right ureter with swelling of kidneys due to urine accumulation (hydronephrosis). The patient also had some other problem in the past such as deep vein thrombosis, basilic vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, right testicular vein clot with testicular necrosis, hyperlipidemia and hypertension. There was no family history of a coagulation disorder.  The patient was an ex-smoker and denied alcohol use. 

He underwent cystoscopy with removal of intravesical clots and stenting of the right ureter. His renal function however, worsened. On day 3, he developed an occlusive thrombus in right cephalic vein, ecchymotic patches on the anterior abdominal wall followed by extensive right femoral and popliteal vein clots with myonecrosis on day 6 of admission, requiring above knee amputation. This was followed by intramuscular hemorrhage in the gluteal muscles and facial skin gangrene on day 9. His coagulation profile, renal and pulmonary function worsened requiring mechanical ventilation. He ultimately died on day 11 of hospital admission. 

The autopsy was performed on an already embalmed body. The pertinent gross findings included massive hemorrhagic necrosis of urinary bladder and prostate with large peri-vesical hematoma. Right coronary artery demonstrated in-stent thrombosis with 100% occlusion. There was moderate cardiomegaly with evidence of old myocardial infarction of the posterior left and right ventricular wall with severe fibrous endocardial thickening. Mucosal hemorrhage was noted in the hypopharynx, gastroesophageal junction and pylorus.  The person was suffering from the antiphospholipid syndrome.

What type of regressive changes were observed in this case study? What other terms in this case study are you familiar with? Write the definitions of gangrene, hematoma, ecchymotic patches, and hematuria? Were there any exogenous and endogenous pigmentation observed? How do such cases affect the preparation of body for funerals?

This Discussion Board is worth 100 points. Each student should post at least 3 times during the week, at three different days.  Minimum needed is to post the answers to the 5 questions.  In addition to the answers to the questions, you may ask questions, respond to other posts or discuss the case study.

Grading Criteria

20 points – Initial post

0 – 20 points – Initial post is detailed, demonstrates high quality, contributes to the discussion, and is referenced based- 7-10 sentences